Designing your Investment Round

Investment-Round Design
In this article, we'll explore the key components of designing a successful investment round for your startup. From understanding valuation methodologies to calculating the ideal round size and making strategic equity allocation decisions, we'll provide valuable insights to help you navigate this critical phase of your fundraising journey.

This article plays a pivotal role in our extensive Investor Readiness series, a carefully crafted guide aimed at empowering entrepreneurs in the impact and climate-tech sectors. Our goal is to equip you with the essential knowledge, strategies, and tools necessary to secure the support your startup rightfully deserves.

In the previous chapter, Crafting Fundraising Materials for a Winning Pitch, we explored the art of creating compelling documents that effectively convey your startup’s vision and value proposition to potential investors. Now, in this instalment, we’ll shift our focus to the next crucial step in your fundraising journey, which is about how to design your Investment Round.

Here, we’ll delve into the intricate details of structuring your investment round, including valuation methodologies, determining the round size, and making informed equity allocation decisions.



Startup Valuation Guide


Valuing your startup extends beyond the realm of numbers; it’s an endeavor to capture its essence and potential impact. As you embark on the journey to determine your startup’s worth, it’s crucial to recognize the myriad factors that wield influence over its valuation.


Factors Influencing Startup Valuation

Startup Valuation Factors

Consider the following key factors within the domain of Startup Valuation:

  • Startup Stage
  • Industry
  • Product Nature
  • Capital Needs
  • Product Development & R&D Cycle
  • Geographic Market
  • Investor Sentiment
  • Competitive Landscape
  • Team Expertise
  • Market Traction
  • Market Trends
  • Exit Potential

To gain a deeper understanding of these valuation factors, let’s delve into some illustrative examples.

We’ll explore both a high valuation and a low valuation scenario, each influenced by various factors, showcasing their positive or negative impact on the valuation.


⬆️ High Valuation Scenario

Imagine a Silicon Valley climate tech startup specializing in carbon capture and storage technology.

Several factors have contributed to its optimistic valuation of €10 million:

  • Startup Stage: Successful pilot projects and transition to the growth phase reduce investor risk. 
  • Industry: Positioned in the high-growth climate tech sector, the startup is well-aligned with global environmental concerns, attracting investors.
  • Product Nature: Focus on software solutions minimizes capital needs, appealing to investors. 
  • Team Expertise: The founding team includes renowned climate science experts, significantly enhancing the startup’s credibility.
  • Market Traction: Partnerships with major players demonstrate strong market potential.
  • Exit Potential: Anticipation of a profitable exit through acquisition or IPO contributes to the high valuation.

In this scenario, these factors collectively shape investor perception, fostering optimism about the startup’s future success and driving its high valuation.


⬇️ Low Valuation Scenario

Now picture a Southeast Asian electric scooter-sharing startup with a current valuation of €1 million.

In this case, several factors are influencing this relatively low valuation:

  • Capital Needs: The startup operates in a capital-intensive sector where substantial investments are required to expand and compete effectively.
  • Geographic Market: The Southeast Asian market presents challenges due to regulatory complexities and variations in market maturity across different countries.
  • Investor Sentiment: Cautious investor sentiment prevails in the electric scooter-sharing sector due to regulatory uncertainties and shifting market dynamics.
  • Competitive Landscape: The electric scooter-sharing industry in Southeast Asia is highly competitive, with multiple players engaging in price wars to gain market share.
  • Market Traction: The startup has experienced slower-than-expected progress in terms of user acquisition and revenue growth.
  • Exit Potential: Limited exit opportunities within the Southeast Asian market further contribute to the startup’s lower valuation.


Now that we’ve dissected the intricate web of factors that influence startup valuations, let’s pivot our focus towards the essential methods used to determine a startup’s worth.


Valuation Methodologies

Each of the valuation methodologies that we’ll explore in this section has its unique strengths and applications, making them suitable for different situations and stages of development.


Market Comparables

Market Comparables

This approach involves comparing your startup’s financial metrics and performance indicators to those of similar companies in your industry that have recently been valued or acquired. By benchmarking your startup against others, you can estimate its potential market value based on prevailing trends and investor sentiment.

Example: Imagine an early-stage climate-tech startup focusing on renewable energy solutions. By analyzing recently funded companies in the clean energy sector, the startup finds two comparable firms, A and B, valued at €2 million and €3.5 million, respectively. This insight helps the startup gauge its positioning in the market.


Discounted Cash Flow

DCF considers the time value of money, projecting your startup’s future cash flows and discounting them back to their present value using a chosen discount rate. This method provides a comprehensive view of your startup’s intrinsic worth by considering its ability to generate cash over time.

Example: Consider a climate-tech startup securing contracts for solar energy systems, projecting annual cash flows of €500,000 for a decade. Applying a 10% discount rate, the DCF analysis yields a present value of approximately €4 million, empowering the startup to confidently engage potential investors.


Risk Factor Summation

This approach assesses a set of risk factors specific to your startup, quantifying their impact on valuation. By assigning scores to these factors and applying a corresponding discount rate, you can determine a risk-adjusted valuation that reflects your venture’s unique risk profile.


An early-stage climate-tech startup identifies and quantifies various industry-specific risks, arriving at a cumulative risk score of 18. It then calculates a 15% discount rate to adjust for these risks. Compared to the industry benchmark’s pre-money valuation of €800,000 and a risk score of 25, the startup’s lower risk profile results in a projected valuation of €1.2 million. This valuation highlights the startup’s reduced risk perception, making it an attractive opportunity for investors.

These valuation methodologies empower you to communicate your startup’s value proposition effectively.

While each method has its strengths, the choice depends on your startup’s stage and industry context.



Round Size Determination


Round Size Determination

Determining the ideal round size is not merely about choosing a number; it’s a strategic decision that can shape the trajectory of your startup’s growth.

In this section, we will explore the art and science behind Round Size Determination. Whether you’re at the early stages of establishing your market presence or a growth-stage startup aiming for rapid expansion, understanding the factors that influence your round size is crucial.


Assessing Runway and Growth Projections

Determining the ideal round size involves taking several actions:

  1. Calculate Burn Rate: Determine your startup’s monthly cash consumption.

    —> For example, let’s say your early-stage climate tech startup has a monthly burn rate of €100,000.

  2. Project Growth: Forecast revenue and milestones for the coming 12 months.

    —> In this case, you expect €50,000 in monthly revenue growth.

  3. Identify Gap and Duration: Analyze the difference between your burn rate and revenue growth to pinpoint your funding needs.

    —> With a €100,000 monthly burn rate and projected €50,000 in monthly revenue growth, you have a €50,000 gap. This means you’ll need funding of €50,000 per month for the next 12 months, totaling €600,000.


Aligning with Growth Targets

Your round size should align with your startup’s growth aspirations:

  • Early-Stage Startups: If you’re in the early stage, focus on laying strong foundations.

    —> For example, imagine your impact startup aims to validate its sustainable agriculture solutions, initiate pilot partnerships with local farmers, and build an initial customer base. To achieve these milestones over the next 12 months, you determine a funding round of €700,000 is needed. This capital infusion would enable you to refine your product, engage potential customers, and gather crucial market insights.

  • Growth-Stage Startups: For growth-stage startups, the emphasis shifts towards scaling.

    —> Suppose your climate-tech company specializes in innovative water purification systems. With a monthly burn rate of €100,000, you plan to expand operations to neighboring countries, establish strategic partnerships with regional water authorities, and deploy systems on a larger scale. To achieve these growth targets within the next 18 months, you calculate a funding round of €3 million. This funding injection would allow you to seize market opportunities, enhance your technology, and solidify your market leadership.


Operational Expenses and Buffer
  1. Calculate your startup’s monthly operational expenses. This includes salaries, rent, utilities, software licenses, and other recurring costs. —> Suppose your climate-tech startup’s monthly operational expenses amount to €80,000.
  2. To prepare for unexpected challenges or delays in fundraising, it’s wise to include a financial buffer. Typically, this buffer covers an additional three to six months of operational expenses. —> In your case, with monthly expenses at €80,000, a three-month buffer would require €240,000, while a six-month buffer would amount to €480,000.

By considering your monthly operational expenses and adding an appropriate buffer, you can ensure your startup has the financial resilience to navigate uncertainties and stay on course.


Investor Engagement and Market Context

Successful fundraising isn’t just about the numbers; it’s also about understanding investor sentiment and the broader market context. Follow these steps:

  1. Gauge investor interest and engagement throughout your fundraising journey. Consider the level of interest, inquiries, and commitments from potential investors.
  2. Stay informed about the current market conditions and trends within your industry. Analyze recent fundraising rounds and valuations of startups in your sector.

—> Imagine a climate tech startup specializing in sustainable energy solutions amid challenging market conditions. Competitor benchmarking reveals that similar startups, Company A and Company B, secured funding rounds of €5 million and €8 million. While these benchmarks suggest a range of €5 million to €8 million, the startup evaluates its unique growth projections, operational needs, and the decreasing investor interest.

Recognizing the importance of financial prudence during tough market conditions, they opt for a leaner round of €3 million, aligning their funding closely with immediate operational requirements and showcasing their commitment to financial sustainability. This strategic decision not only instills investor confidence but also underscores the startup’s adaptability and agility in responding to market challenges.



Equity Allocation




This section will provide you insights about structuring equity agreements, choosing the right funding round, and understanding the implications of common and preferred shares versus convertible rounds. Its goal is to help you take informed decisions and optimize your startup’s financial strategy.


Navigating Equity Allocation

Equity allocation in startups resembles navigating a complex maze, as it profoundly influences your company’s structure, governance, and financial outcomes.

Here’s your roadmap to mastering this critical aspect.


Founders’ Equity Agreement

Picture this—an entrepreneurial duo founding a tech startup. To ensure a harmonious journey, they draft a comprehensive equity agreement. This foundational document delineates each founder’s initial ownership stake, considering factors like roles, responsibilities, and contributions. The aim is to prevent future disputes and maintain a collaborative spirit.


Early-Stage Investor Equity

As their startup journey unfolds, they encounter early-stage investors eager to provide crucial capital. For them, determining the equity portion to allocate in exchange for funding becomes a pivotal challenge. Balancing the scales between meeting investor expectations and preserving founder equity can be a complex endeavor. It’s about securing vital resources while ensuring the founders maintain a substantial stake in their company.


Employee Stock Option Plan

Along the way, our startup recognizes the importance of attracting and retaining top talent. Enter the Employee Stock Option Plan, a powerful tool for incentivizing employees. By granting equity options, the startup aligns employees’ interests with its long-term success. Factors like the number of options awarded, vesting schedules, and exercise prices all come into play.


Alignment of Interests and Future Dilution Planning

The startup anticipates a journey marked by growth and multiple fundraising rounds. To navigate this landscape effectively, it prepares for future equity dilution. This forward-thinking approach ensures founders and early investors maintain significant stakes while welcoming new investors on board. The key lies in understanding how dilution affects ownership percentages and aligning the interests of all stakeholders.

Now that we’ve explored the intricacies of equity allocation, let’s delve deeper into the world of funding rounds. Understanding the various options and their implications is crucial for making informed decisions about your startup’s financial strategy.


Equity Rounds vs. Convertible Rounds

When it comes to raising funds for your startup, understanding the nuances between equity rounds and convertible rounds is essential.

Let’s dive into the distinctions:


Equity Rounds

In an equity round, you’re essentially selling ownership stakes (shares) in your company.

Investors receive shares immediately, representing a direct claim on the company’s assets and earnings.


  • Common shareholders usually get voting rights and a say in company decisions.
  • The valuation of your company is determined upfront, influencing the share price.
  • Equity rounds are straightforward, with investors becoming shareholders with clearly defined ownership rights.


Convertible Rounds

Convertible rounds, on the other hand, are a bit more complex. Instead of immediate ownership, investors essentially lend money to your startup.

They typically involve issuing convertible securities, such as convertible notes or Simple Agreements for Future Equity (SAFEs).


  • This debt eventually converts into equity in the next significant funding round, typically at a discount or with a valuation cap.
  • Convertible rounds offer flexibility, allowing you to secure funding quickly without establishing a valuation right away.
  • They are often used by early-stage startups that haven’t yet determined their exact worth.


Choosing between them:

The choice between equity and convertible rounds depends on your startup’s specific needs and circumstances.

  • If you have a solid valuation and want to maintain more control and certainty over equity distribution, equity rounds might be preferable.
  • On the other hand, if your valuation is uncertain or you want to secure funding swiftly without negotiations, convertible rounds can be advantageous.

Many startups opt for convertible rounds early on and transition to equity rounds as they mature and can establish a clearer valuation.

Now that we’ve explored the fundamental distinctions between Equity Rounds and Convertible Rounds, it’s time to dive into a more detailed examination of the two primary types of equity shares that investors frequently obtain.


Common Shares vs. Preferred Shares

Common Shares vs. Preferred Shares

These two share types have distinct implications for ownership, control, and financial outcomes.

Let’s delve into the essentials of each to aid your equity allocation decisions.


Common Shares

Common shares represent the basic ownership units in your company, and they come with voting rights. Typically, founders and early employees hold these shares, signifying their commitment to the startup’s growth.

Practical Application: If you want to align founders and key contributors with the startup’s success and decision-making, common shares are the way to go.

Key Consideration: Keep in mind that common shares might not be as enticing to investors seeking preferential treatment or added financial security.


Preferred Shares

Preferred shares provide investors with certain advantages, such as priority in receiving dividends and a higher liquidation preference. These shares are about stability and security.

Practical Application: Preferred shares are well-suited for risk-averse investors and industries where investments have longer horizons.

Key Consideration: It’s important to note that they can dilute the voting power of common shareholders and introduce complexity into your equity structure.

Whether you choose Common Shares, Preferred Shares, or Convertible Rounds, it’s about balancing interests, motivating stakeholders, and fueling your success.

Keep adapting as your startup evolves, stay informed about market dynamics, and engage effectively with stakeholders.


Looking to the future, our next article in this series will dive into the topic of Investment Structure and Terms. Building on the knowledge we’ve explored today, understanding the intricacies of investment structure and terms is the logical next step in your investment readiness journey.

Stay tuned for valuable insights that will further empower your startup’s fundraising efforts.


These articles are excerpts from our recently unveiled comprehensive Investor Readiness Guide.

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